By dating fossils of pollen and beetles

'; } function create Navigation(current Slide, events) function get Event Index By Date( in Date, events, approximate ) else } return indexes; } function get Event Date By Index( in Index, events ) var available Dates = [ ]; function get Preformatted Date( date ) function available(date) var month Names = [ "January", "February", "March", "April", "May", "June", "July", "August", "September", "October", "November", "December"]; function trigger Minimize() { $('.section').toggle Class('min'); $('.New research proves beetles have been pollinating flowers for at least 20 million years.In fact, beetles account for 40 percent of all insects.This 3D model of “Darwinylus marcosi” shows how the beetle may have looked before it became stuck in tree resin 105 million years ago. marcosi’s” body is inferred from the density of the shed pollen in the amber surrounding the beetle.Flower-associated pollen can be distinguished from the pollen of non-flowering seed producers, like conifers.Such fossil evidence of flowers appears in the Early Cretaceous and all strata above that.That's too general of a fact to be helpful in explaining our specific predicament.

There are more than 350,000 species of beetles currently described in the scientific literature, making them the most diverse order on Earth.

Pollination drops are a liquid similar to the nectar of flowering plants and originate from deep funnel-like holes in pinecone-like structures and other gymnosperm ovule-bearing organs.

Image A shows loose pollen grains from a gymnosperm plant, enlarged in images C and D, trapped in 105 million-year-old amber with the newly discovered beetle “Darwinylus marcosi.” The beetle with the pollen in amber is shown in image H.

Hochuli and Feist-Burkhardt have discovered six different types of floral pollen in two drilling cores from northern Switzerland’s Middle Triassic strata.

They obtained detailed three-dimensional images of the pollen grains using confocal laser microscopy and confirmed the grains met all criteria for flower pollen.