The nuclear reactor, used to generate electricity, heralded Obninsk's new role as a major Soviet scientific city, a status it retains in the Russian Federation where it carries the sobriquet of First Russian Science City.
Obninsk, population 108,000, currently houses no fewer than 12 scientific research institutions and a technical university.
The world’s first nuclear power plant was built on the site of V Laboratory – Nuclear Center, established in 1946 (now State Scientific Center AJ Leipunsky Institute for Physics and Power Engineering), 100km from Moscow.
The name of the station came from the noble family of Obninsky, which used to own the picturesque wooded land where the nuclear plant was constructed.
But the history of the area has roots stretching back to the middle ages.
Early records about the villages of Samsonovo, Belkino and Pyatkino, which are now parts of modern Obninsk, date back to the 16th century.
OBNINSK, Kaluga Region — Many experiments of the Soviet period came with great risks to people and the environment, and the creation of Obninsk is no exception. first harnessed the energy of the atom to make it serve mankind.
"The skin of the earth was slit by iron, the tender sky was choked by dust. Obninsk was born in 1946 based on a decree by Josef Stalin that a secret laboratory to carry out research in nuclear physics should be built on the left bank of the Protva River, a tributary of the Oka.